February 15, 2019

Assessing Institutional Rules Vision 2020 Has Given Us to Anchor Governance

Trustworthy and indepth news stories are more important now than ever.
Support our newsroom by MAKING A CONTRIBUTION HERE

As promised last Friday, this is the start of the serialization of the achievements and probable failures Vision 2020 has registered thus far.

The objective is to assess whether the promise embedded in this long term development strategy that has guided policy since 2000 has been achieved a year to the end of its implementation cycle next year.

In this series, we start with a review of Pillar One of the vision which is “Governance and [creating] a strong state”.

Under this pillar, architects of the Vision promised to deliver, by 2020, a Rwanda that is not only “modern and prosperous”, but one that has “a capable state characterized by rule of law…supports and protects its citizen without discrimination” in a climate of “accountability, transparency and efficiency in deploying scarce resource” besides respect for “democratic structures and process…and protection of human rights”.

To what extent has this Rwanda been achieved?  

Since governance is exercised and anchored in rules, laws, processes and institutions, this article documents and analyses the kind of laws, processes and institutions that anchor governance today with subsequent articles assessing whether these institutions, rules and process have substantively produced what was aspired to in Vision 2020. 

So, what is “governance”?

While governance is perceived to be a complex concept, the World Bank defines it as putting in place and implementing “the rules of the political system to solve conflicts between actors and adopt decisions (legally)”

And United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) sees governance “as the exercise of economic, political and administrative authority to manage a country’s affairs at all levels and it comprises mechanisms, processes, and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and mediate their differences”.

So what are “the rules of the political system” set up “to solve conflicts between political actors” since the inauguration of Vision 2020 in 2000 and what are the “mechanisms, processes and institutions through which citizens…articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights…and mediate their differences” today?

Looking back to what Rwanda had and didn’t have in 2000 when Vision 2020 was adopted, institutionally and legally speaking, the ground has sharply shifted.

In fact, a critical assessment shows that Vision 2020’s earliest achievement lies in setting up of new institutions that anchor governance today and that clarify “appropriate” political behavior that are incentivized and those that are “punished”; mediate access to political power and ensure law and order.

To start with, there can’t be governance─of the type that would produce a middle income country and a knowledge based economy that Vision 2020 aspired to without law and order premised on secure borders and territorial integrity.

In 2000 when the vision was kick-started, the country still faced some lawlessness  as well as external threats particularly coming from the DR Congo where the so call democratic forces for the liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) had (and still has) bases.

Internally, law and order was provided by three paramilitary forces reporting to different centers of power. These included the gendarmerie that was under the Ministry of Defence; the communal police which was under the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Judicial Police that reported to the Ministry of Justice.

To ensure proper coordination, and management of law and order in the country, in June 2000, the above forces were merged to form the current National Police to effectively take charge of law and order under one command and control.

At the time, Rwanda’s borders were still threatened by the FDLR based in Congo. The Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA) kept them at bay at the time.

However, the RPA was a liberation rebel army that had defeated a genocide regime and in order to achieve the objectives of Vision 2020, it had to be reorganized to have a national army.

So, in 2002, a decision was taken and the RPA became the Rwanda Defence Forces (RDF) as codified by law no.19/2002 of 17/05/2002.

Since then, this force has incorporated not only former members of the Forces armées Rwandaises (ex-Far) but also former members of FDLR; including senior commanders.

In subsequent years, other security organs were created like the local defence and DASSO that was created by law No.26/213 of May 10, 2013 as well as the ‘Reserve Force” and the privatization of security through the creation of private security companies.

In the fourth and final article on this pillar of governance, we will asses whether, combined with achievements from other institutions of governance, this security institutional framework has given us “a capable state”.

Fundamentally however, it was the promulgation of the 2003 constitution that, institutionally and legally speaking reoriented the country away from rules of the ancient regime to the aspirations of Vision 2020.

For instance, the 2003 constitution, under Article 182 created the ombudsman’s office that deals with corruption and acts as a certain check on judicial abuse of power while Article 165 (and in the revised version Art. 166) creates the Auditor-General’s office that audits and ensures accountable governance.

President Paul Kagame watches as the Rwanda Defence Forces (RDF), a national army diplays its latest tech and skills

On reconciliation and live together regardless, Article 178 of the 2003 empowers Unity and Reconciliation Commission that had been created by an act of parliament in 1999 to reconcile Rwandans while the Commission to fight against genocide ideology was also created by an act of parliament in 2007 to ensure Never Again by fighting the ideology of genocide.

On relations between the state, the governors and the governed, Article 2 of the Constitution says that “Suffrage is universal and equal to all” and Article 13 clarifies that in Rwanda, “A human being is sacred and inviolable” and “The State has an obligation to respect, protect and defend the human being”.

In article Three in our serialization, we will assess the extent to which the aspirations in the above two article have been achieved.

On fundamental principals in Chapter III, Article 10, the Constitution emphasizes “preventing and punishing the crime of genocide”; “power-sharing”; building a “state governed by rule of law; a pluralistic democratic government; equality between Rwanda, men and women” as well as “constant quest for solutions through dialogue and consensus”

And on governance, Article 62 states that “Power sharing is respected in State institutions in accordance with the fundamental principles set out under Article 10 of this Constitution…” while Article 61 spells out checks and balances between institutions of government─the executive, the legislature and the judiciary.

In our next article, we will assess the extent to which power-sharing has been achieved within a pluralistic political dispensation provided under Article 54 of the Constitution and checks and balances ensured as envisioned in the constitution in a climate of freedom of the press, of expression; and of information as provided for under Article 38 of the same constitution.

Now that we have clarified the institutional and legal framework under which the objectives of the first pillar of Vision were to be attained, in the next article, we shall analyse whether or not power-sharing, rule of law and checks and balances have been achieved as envisioned.

We can't do quality journalism without your support

Perhaps it goes without saying — but producing quality journalism isn't cheap. At a time when newsroom resources and revenue are declining, The Chronicles remains committed to "Serving Your Right To Know The Truth". Stand with us as we document Rwanda's remarkable journey for you and the future generation. Do you value our journalism? We can't do it without you. Show us with your support by CONTRIBUTING HERE.
Email your news TIPS to info@chronicles.rw or WhatsApp +250788351327.
You can also find us on Signal


  1. Excellent site. Lots of useful information here. I’m sending it to a few buddies ans additionally sharing in delicious.
    And certainly, thanks for your sweat!

  2. I’ve been browsing on-line greater than 3 hours as of late, yet I never discovered any interesting article like
    yours. It’s beautiful value sufficient for me. Personally, if all webmasters
    and bloggers made just right content as you did, the net might be a lot more useful than ever before.

  3. What i do not realize is actually how you are now not actually a lot more smartly-liked than you might be right
    now. You are so intelligent. You understand thus considerably relating to this topic, produced me for my part imagine it from a
    lot of numerous angles. Its like women and men are not interested
    unless it is one thing to do with Girl gaga! Your personal stuffs great.
    At all times handle it up![url=https://stmracingudonthani.com/%E0%B9%80%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%B5%E0%B8%A2%E0%B8%A3%E0%B9%8C%E0%B8%AB%E0%B8%A5%E0%B8%B8%E0%B8%94/]เกียร์หลุด เกิดจากอะไร[/url]

    เกียร์หลุด เกิดจากอะไร

  4. First of all I want to say excellent blog! I had a quick question which I’d like to
    ask if you do not mind. I was interested to know how you center yourself
    and clear your thoughts before writing. I have had a difficult time clearing my mind in getting my thoughts out.
    I truly do enjoy writing but it just seems like the first 10 to 15 minutes tend to be lost just trying
    to figure out how to begin. Any recommendations or tips? Thank you!

  5. Fantastic beat ! I would like to apprentice while you amend your web site, how can i subscribe for a blog site?
    The account helped me a acceptable deal. I had been tiny bit
    acquainted of this your broadcast offered bright clear idea

  6. Hello just wanted to give you a quick heads
    up. The words in your article seem to be running off the screen in Opera.
    I’m not sure if this is a formatting issue or something to do with browser compatibility but I thought I’d post
    to let you know. The layout look great though!
    Hope you get the issue solved soon. Thanks

  7. You really make it seem so easy with your presentation but
    I find this topic to be actually something that I think
    I would never understand. It seems too complicated and extremely broad for me.
    I am looking forward for your next post, I
    will try to get the hang of it!

  8. Wow, awesome blog structure! How long have you ever been blogging for?
    you made blogging glance easy. The entire look of your web site
    is magnificent, as well as the content material! You can see
    similar here najlepszy sklep

  9. What’s up every one, here every person is sharing these experience,
    therefore it’s nice to read this website, and I used to pay a quick visit this webpage everyday.

  10. When someone writes an piece of writing he/she maintains
    the image of a user in his/her mind that how a user can know it.
    So that’s why this post is outstdanding. Thanks!

  11. Hi, I think your blog might be having browser compatibility issues.

    When I look at your blog in Chrome, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping.

    I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, great blog!

  12. Wedding venues play a pivotal role in the vibrant city of Las Vegas, Nevada, where couples flock from around the world to tie the knot.
    From extravagant ceremonies to intimate gatherings, the choice of wedding location sets the tone for one of life’s most memorable events.
    With a plethora of options ranging from outdoor garden settings to elegant banquet halls, selecting the perfect venue is essential for creating
    the wedding of your dreams.

    Nestled in the heart of Las Vegas, Lotus House Events offers couples a picturesque backdrop for their special day.
    Founded in the same year as the city itself, Lotus House Events is steeped
    in history and tradition, mirroring the dynamic spirit of Las Vegas.
    With a population of 646,790 residents and over 832,367 households,
    Las Vegas is a melting pot of diverse cultures
    and communities. Interstate 11 traverses the city, providing convenient access to neighboring areas and attractions.

    In a city known for its extreme temperatures, ranging from scorching summers to mild winters, home
    repairs are a constant consideration for residents.
    Whether it’s air conditioning maintenance to beat the summer heat or roofing repairs to withstand occasional rainfall, homeowners understand the importance of
    budgeting for these expenses. On average, repairs typically range from a few hundred to several thousand dollars, depending on the nature of the work required and the
    contractor hired.

    Exploring the vibrant tapestry of Las Vegas’s attractions, residents and visitors alike are spoiled for choice.
    From the whimsical wonders of AREA15 to the serene beauty of
    Aliante Nature Discovery Park, there’s something for everyone to enjoy.
    Thrill-seekers can brave the Asylum-Hotel Fear Haunted House,
    while art enthusiasts can marvel at the exhibits in the Arts
    District. History buffs can delve into the Atomic
    Museum’s intriguing displays, while families can create lasting memories at the Discovery Children’s Museum.

    Choosing Lotus House Events as your wedding venue in Las Vegas ensures a seamless and
    unforgettable experience for you and your guests. With a variety of indoor and
    outdoor spaces to accommodate weddings of all sizes and styles, Lotus House
    Events offers unparalleled flexibility and customization options.
    From expert wedding planning services to exquisite catering and decor, every detail is meticulously curated to
    bring your vision to life. With convenient packages and availability, Lotus House Events takes the stress out
    of wedding planning, allowing you to focus on creating cherished memories that will last a lifetime.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *