November 29, 2022

Felicien Kabuga: Genocide Trial Behind Closed Doors

Trustworthy and indepth news stories are more important now than ever.
Support our newsroom by MAKING A CONTRIBUTION HERE

Félicien Kabuga’s arrest was announced as a great success and his trial as an important event. But little has been heard about this trial that started on September 29 – for good reason, because the trial of Kabuga, alleged financier of the 1994 Tutsi genocide, is being held mostly behind closed doors.

Pixelated image next to the following text:
Heavy witness protection and numerous closed-door sessions cast a veil over the announced major trial of the last of the Rwandan fugitives.

Two months have passed since the start of the trial. Twelve witnesses have been heard. Hearings are taking place on only three days of the week, two hours a day, between 10 a.m. and midday in The Hague, where the UN Mechanism handling residual functions of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda is located.

Originally due to be tried at its branch in Arusha, Tanzania, a status conference on August 18, 2022, decided after consultation with the detention facility medical officer and defence that the 87-year-old’s health (Kabuga himself says he is 89) warranted that he be tried in the Netherlands, and at this pace. A witness with evidence to give can testify for a week or two. At the current rate, and if the number of witnesses expected to take the stand (more than a hundred for the two sides), does not change, the trial could last at least another year.


Kabuga had announced that he would not participate in his trial in protest that his lead lawyer Emmanuel Altit had been assigned to him against his will. But he is finally attending the trial, either from the detention centre via video conference or by appearing in court. In the courtroom, Kabuga does not sit with his lawyers. He sits far behind them in a wheelchair, surrounded by a UN security officer and a language assistant, wearing headphones, still wearing a suit, and appearing to be quietly following his trial. Kabuga repeatedly challenged Altit, but the court ruled that he had failed to show that the lawyer “did not honour his professional obligations”.

Kabuga’s reappearance at his trial is “out of spite”, his eldest son Donatien Kabuga told Justice Info. “For me, it’s not important if he participates or not because he is not responsible for his actions in his current state.” Donatien says that his father does not have all his cognitive capacities. “What we are witnessing is a shameful spectacle because it amounts to taking a defenceless and vulnerable person hostage.”

Altit remains in the case. He has been assigned as co-counsel Françoise Mathe, who has extensive experience in Rwandan genocide cases and is conducting most of the cross-examination of prosecution witnesses. Despite our questions to the defence, we were not told whether Mathe was appointed with the agreement of the accused or not. “As for the co-counsel, it’s quite likely that Altit had my father sign her appointment. My father is at the total mercy of Altit, who does not care about his interests,” says Donatien, who doubts that the defence is consulting with his father. “My father is in no condition to discuss a legal case, and the quality of the cross-examinations shows that the lawyers’ preparation of is very poor.”


The hyper-protection of witnesses and unjustified use of closed-door sessions cast another pall over this trial for the last of the great Rwandan fugitives, whose arrest had been presented as a personal success for prosecutor Serge Brammertz. Of the twelve witnesses, nine are “protected” and only three factual witnesses have testified openly: Monique Mujawamariya, a Rwandan-Canadian human rights activist; former Kigali prosecutor François-Xavier Nsanzuwera; and Jean-François Dupaquier as an expert witness on the media in Rwanda in 1994.

The prosecutor did not ask any questions even of expert witness Dupaquier during the examination-in-chief, simply introducing them and placing his report in the file. Defence lawyer Mathe tried to test the witness, questioning his methodology, the origin and authenticity of the sources and documents used to prepare the report. Mathe questioned the objectivity of the expert, arguing that he participated in an attempt to have Kabuga arrested several years ago. “One cannot be completely neutral in the face of genocide,” Dupaquier retorted.

The hearings of protected witnesses are not accessible to those such as journalists and experts who are trying to follow the trial. Presented under pseudonyms, faces invisible, voices altered, their “testimonies” are interspersed with long closed-door sessions. Sometimes everything takes place behind closed doors. Sometimes, when pressured by the defence, a witness asks for an in camera hearing on grounds that answering the question might reveal his or her identity. It is impossible to know if the in camera session was really necessary or was out of a need not to expose the witness’s disarray. Concern to expedite the proceedings because of Kabuga’s age meant that the prosecution did not conduct a main interrogation, leaving the judges and defence to consult the statements made beforehand. Thus, the prosecution simply reads a brief summary of the testimony at the beginning of the witness’s “hearing”, in a procedure endorsed by the chamber despite the opposition of the defence expressed at a hearing on October 12.

According to Altit, the prosecutor is influencing his witness by reading this summary. “This text is a summary of how the prosecutor sees the case, or more precisely, how he sees the witness’s testimony,” he explained. “In a way, through this process, the prosecutor is testifying for the witness.”  For Kabuga’s lead counsel, in reading this text “the prosecutor tells the witness what he must remember, what he must say, what he must answer to the defence. This, in our view, is a blatant breach of the spirit of examination and cross-examination, and a breach of the fairness of the proceedings”.

The Chamber overruled the defence objection and allowed the summaries to be read, while requesting that they be presented to the judges and defence beforehand, so that they could study it before allowing it to be read. This has since become the rule.

Twelve witnesses have been heard so far in the hearings, which take place over three days of the week, two hours a day, between 10am and 12pm Hague time.

Resources for Interahamwe militia

From what can be gleaned of the protected witnesses’ hearings, supplemented by the testimonies of Mujawamariya and Nsanzuwera, one understands that, as in the indictment, the witnesses accuse Kabuga of having financially supported the Interahamwe militias which spearheaded the Rwandan genocide. They describe Kabuga as a wealthy businessman, close to the government, who gave a building in Kigali’s Muhima district to the presidential MRND party, the party from which the Interahamwe emerged.

Several witnesses cited by the prosecution state that these militia were trained in that building to use firearms. Others who were part of the party’s youth movement say, on the contrary, that the training took place elsewhere. Still others, including one protected by the pseudonym “KAB 076,” say that a group of Interahamwe guarded Kabuga’s home in the Kimironko neighbourhood of Kigali.

Witness “KAB 066,” an ex-Interahamwe, described a truckload of firearms being transported in a truck belonging to Kabuga. This truck, he said, came from Goma in the Democratic Republic of Congo to the military camp in Gisenyi, and the weapons were distributed to the Interahamwe to kill Tutsis not only in Gisenyi, but also in Bisesero in the former Kibuye prefecture. The witness said he had heard that Kabuga bought these weapons. According to another witness, “KAB 032”, Kabuga supported the militia by giving them money, providing them with vehicles, giving them food, and providing them with space in his building in Muhima.

Nsanzuwera told the court that during the genocide, the militia was composed not only of MRND youth but also youth from other parties, notably the Impuzamugambi of the CDR (Coalition for the Defence of the Republic) party and the Hutu power wings of the MDR (Democratic Republican Movement), PL (Liberal Party), and PSD (Social Democratic Party).

Kabuga and the RTLM

The other topic discussed so far is that of RTLM (Radio-Télévision Libre des Milles Collines), of which the accused was president of the Initiative Committee, the radio’s executive body.

Witness “KAB005”, a former Information Ministry official, was responsible for monitoring and recording RTLM broadcasts and reporting on them to the minister. He said he participated in meetings that his minister convened with RTLM management. Despite the minister’s warnings, RTLM’s inflammatory broadcasts stirring up hatred of Tutsis continued. According to this witness, Kabuga often spoke at the meetings, arguing that the radio station had the right to tell the whole truth. Former prosecutor Nsanzuwera said that at a meeting convened by the Minister of Information in which he took part, Kabuga, “like a patriarch”, did not participate in the debates, and that it was rather RTLM director Nahimana who insisted on defending the radio.

The defence, in its cross-examination, tried to stress it was not surprising that a well-known entrepreneur like Kabuga was among the founders of Rwanda’s first private radio and television station, and that its statutes did not bode ill. Their client was not the editor-in-chief, nor did he have the task of checking or rewriting the journalists’ interventions, nor was he the one who decided on the editorial line, they argued.

In his opening statement, Altit said that “far from being a stage in the preparation of genocide, as the prosecutor claims, the creation of RTLM was in fact part of the process of democratization of the country, which was then opening up to a multi-party system”. Before the advent of multiparty politics in Rwanda in 1991, there was only one radio station, namely Radio Rwanda. The prosecution alleges that the creation of RTLM was intended to contribute to and amplify anti-Tutsi rhetoric.

When asked, the press office of the Mechanism said that the public could watch the streaming of the hearings, which would be broadcast on a screen in Arusha and Kigali. We were unable to verify the conditions of access. As far as attendance is concerned, the choppy hearings, multiple sessions behind closed doors and little so far in the way of new revelations suggest it won’t be high.

We can't do quality journalism without your support

Perhaps it goes without saying — but producing quality journalism isn't cheap. At a time when newsroom resources and revenue are declining, The Chronicles remains committed to "Serving Your Right To Know The Truth". Stand with us as we document Rwanda's remarkable journey for you and the future generation. Do you value our journalism? We can't do it without you. Show us with your support by CONTRIBUTING HERE.
Email your news TIPS to or WhatsApp +250788351327.
You can also find us on Signal


  1. I know this if off topic but I’m looking into starting my own blog and was curious what
    all is required to get setup? I’m assuming having a blog like yours would cost a pretty penny?
    I’m not very internet savvy so I’m not 100% certain. Any tips or advice would be greatly appreciated.

  2. This is a really good tip especially to those fresh to the blogosphere.
    Short but very precise information… Many thanks for sharing this one.

    A must read article!

  3. I simply could not go away your web site prior to suggesting that I actually loved the usual info an individual supply for your
    visitors? Is going to be back continuously to check out new posts

  4. Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it seems as though you
    relied on the video to make your point. You obviously know what youre
    talking about, why throw away your intelligence on just
    posting videos to your site when you could be giving us something informative to read?

  5. Upon reflection, I thought this post is and not keeping your
    head stuck in the phone the whole while, either) and living a life in full appreciation of the randomness and
    patterns of nature, helps people feel grounded.
    Thinking about important memes is likewise an experience that can aid us make the discovery of self understanding.

  6. Awesome website you have here but I was curious if you knew
    of any forums that cover the same topics talked about in this article?
    I’d really like to be a part of group where I can get advice from other experienced people that share the same interest.

    If you have any suggestions, please let me know.
    Many thanks!

  7. In reality, the vast majority of information are more complicated than some amateur viewer may perhaps determine, depending on their position. I’m not expressing that am
    a pro on this amazing niche being discussed, as a result I imagine it’s for other site users to start thinking about.
    I am not necessarily wanting to make difficulties or be maddening.

    Alternatively, I comprehend from knowledge that this can be the instance.
    I am educated in Postpartum Massage Therapy, and in my own personal selected discipline, I observe
    it a ton. Just-graduated Postpartum Massage Therapists are apt
    to overpromise; which can be, they don’t at this point truly fully grasp the restrictions of their “scope of practice,”
    and hence they may likely make claims that are too general when engaging with patients.
    It’s the very same occurrence; they have been introduced to a theme, don’t understand the total level of this, and finally assume they are the Advisors.

  8. Nice post. I learn something new and challenging on websites I stumbleupon on a daily basis.
    It will always be exciting to read through content from other writers and
    use something from their web sites.

  9. Hey this is somewhat of off topic but I was wanting
    to know if blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if you have to manually code with HTML.
    I’m starting a blog soon but have no coding experience so I wanted to get
    advice from someone with experience. Any help would be greatly appreciated!

  10. Great article! This is the kind of info that are meant to be shared
    across the internet. Shame on the search engines for now not positioning this put up
    higher! Come on over and talk over with my website .
    Thank you =)

  11. Hi, i think that i saw you visited my blog so i came to
    “return the favor”.I am attempting to find
    things to enhance my web site!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  12. hey thеre andd thank you foг your info ? I?ve certainly
    picked up аnything new from right һere. I did hߋwever
    expertise а few technical issues ᥙsing this website,
    since I experienced tο reload the web site many tіmeѕ previoսs to І could gеt
    it to load properly. Ӏ hаd been wondering if yoᥙr hosting is OK?

    Not thst I’m complaining, but sluggish loading instances tіmеѕ wilⅼ ѕometimes affect ʏour placement іn google
    and сould damage yⲟur һigh-quality score іf ads and marketing ԝith Adwords.
    Ꭺnyway I?m adding this RSS tߋ my email аnd could look out
    fօr а lot more of your respective interesting content.
    Ⅿake sսгe уou update thіs again very soοn..

    Here iѕ my wbsite wall trellis –,

  13. I believe that is among the so much important info for me.
    And i’m satisfied studying your article.
    But should statement on few normal issues,
    The site style is ideal, the articles is actually nice : D.

    Excellent job, cheers

  14. Wow that was odd. I just wrote an incredibly long comment but after
    I clicked submit my comment didn’t appear.
    Grrrr… well I’m not writing all that over again. Regardless, just wanted to say
    fantastic blog!

  15. ”Ja, där har vi ett viktigt jobb att göra. Vi kan inte sitta här och gråta över att inte Hockeysverige ser vårt arbete! Det handlar om att bygga små profiler redan bland våra unga killar!” Foto-, arkiv- och föremålssamling Acquistare Pillole Di Requip. Il problema è il tuo atteggiamento rispetto al problema. Guai a chi non era capace di trattenerlo. Il sistema è stato poi rimosso alla Acquistare Pillole di Requip della procedura con possibilità di rapida mobilizzazione del paziente che, trattamento ansia pordenone, senza che nessuno si accorga di di essere stato persuaso.  Stängt! Öppnar igen imorgon kl: 12:00 ”Sedan ska man inte vara rädd för att studsa mellan lagen. Det gäller att inte släppa juniorhockeyn. Där är killarna vana vid att ligga på en hög nivå när det gäller allt från matchning till träning och det ska man fortsätta med för att utvecklas. Det är viktigt att ha kvar fötterna i båda lagen, då J20 ändå är laget där man får möjlighet spela mer och ta ett större ansvar samtidigt som A-laget motiverar och sporrar. Det ser vi tydligt på en kille som Rasmus Asplund.”
    – Kondomen är det enda preventivmedel som skyddar mot både könssjukdomar och mot ofrivilliga graviditeter, berättar Emma Güntner, projektledare för Barnvagnsmarschen. Bristen på preventivmedel är en stor orsak till mödradödligheten i världen. Informationen på denna sida är avsedd för journalister, press och media.Klicka ja för att komma till nyhetsrummet. Klickar du nej kommer du tillbaka till mynewsdesk. Det är bra att alltid kontrollera kondomens bäst före-datum. Latexkondomer håller i fem år om de är lufttätt förpackade och om de har förvarats på rätt sätt. En kondom som är gammal eller uttorkad spricker lättare. RFSU 17006 är en tunn kondom utan glidmedel för den som inte vill använda glidmedel eller vill addera eget glidmedel. Kondomen har en rak passform utan behållare, vilket gör kondomen lättare att rulla på. Kondom är det enda preventivmedlet som skyddar mot både graviditet och sexuellt överförbara könssjukdomar och är helt hormonfritt.

  16. Cryptocurrency is a digital form of currency that’s transferred peer-to-peer through the internet. Fidelity is here to help you gain access to assets like bitcoin, the first and largest asset in the growing category, with expertise in security and reliable support. The easiest way to buy 376598.1862176396 USD with BTC is to convert USD to BTC. To do so, visit the Bitcoin exchanges section, and then look for fiat trading pairs. You can use the search window accompanying the “BTC Pairs” section and enter USD to filter for crypto exchanges that have a BTC USD trading pair. Overall, Coinbase Pro is one of the best places to buy Bitcoin with US Dollar. OBV is another technical trading momentum indicator that uses volume flow to predict changes in the stock price. A rising price should be accompanied by a rising OBV and a falling price should be accompanied by a falling OBV.
    D1 Coin provides a safer option to participate in the blockchain and cryptocurrency space, while protecting users’ wealth. Backed by diamonds, D1 Coins have a clear intrinsic value. According to our latest Bitcoin Diamond Price prediction for 2023, BCD should vary between $2.99 and $1.99. Please keep in mind that the crypto market is very volatile and this Bitcoin Diamond price prediction does not account for extreme wild swings in price. By mid-February 2021, Bitcoin hit an all-time high of over $53,000 — To understand where cryptocurrency is today and where it’s headed, an overview of its tumultuous history is in order Not exactly. The Diamond Standard coin sells a physical, high-tech coin with a QR code around the diamonds. So for once, it’s a real coin, not something found in a cloud.

  17. Wonderful work! This is the type of info that are supposed to be shared across the net.
    Disgrace on Google for no longer positioning this post upper!

    Come on over and discuss with my web site . Thank you =)

  18. As they always say, the bigger the risk, the bigger the reward. When you’re going in to play the video slot, bet the maximum coin size per line. When you bet the maximum coin size, you are more likely to get the largest amount available that the video slot pays out. In addition to higher payouts, most progressive jackpots only hit if players are betting the maximum per line each spin. This can mean a difference of a few thousand dollars – or more! Real money games allow customers to make winnings. Players must complete the registration process and make their first deposit at the casino cashier to play for money. Then download the game and start spinning the reels. Then they will receive a win in real money. While free slot games offer great gaming benefits, real money gambling machines are thrilling, considering the possibility of winning actual cash. Many online casino slots for fun platforms provide real money games that require registration and cash deposit. The demo game platforms help learn how to win real cash prizes, so your process involves the following:
    Choose the checking account that works best for you. See our Chase Total Checking® offer for new customers. Make purchases with your debit card, and bank from almost anywhere by phone, tablet or computer and more than 15,000 ATMs and more than 4,700 branches. Let’s start with safety. Put simply, not all anonymous casino sites offer a safe environment to gamble. We found that some anonymous casinos have poor reviews, specifically related to delayed or refused withdrawals. This is not just an issue with crypto casinos but the broader industry. Most phone bill payments that are accepted by online casinos are carried out through a service provider called Boku. Using Boku you can make online purchases and payments. At online casinos, it all works in a pretty simple manner: you just need to select Boku as your preferred payment method, choose a deposit amount and enter your phone number.

  19. Center for International AffairsSuranaree University of Technology,111 University Avenue, Muang DistrictNakhon Ratchasima 30000, ThailandTel: +66 4422 4145e-mail: Thank you for your interest in UWC Thailand International School. We realise that choosing a new school for your child is a very important (and often stressful) decision, so we are here to answer any questions that you may have along the way. I can confidently say that the quality of education, dedicated professors lecturers and diverse body of students have prepared me to contribute to the global society by giving me the exposure of working in any team. For those who don’t stand still.Don’t say next year, SAY NOW! A model of future cooperation that mobilises resources from both internal and international agencies to the process of teaching, research and development for the Thai and the world society.
    In Chiang Mai, all the students, as mentioned before, look pretty similar since they are all wearing the same types of clothes. Young ladies, being young of course, do their best to look attractive in the uniforms, and do a good job of it, so much so that Thai University Students are regularly voted as having the sexiest school uniforms in the world (see The Asia Sentinel – Jan 21, 2011 – “Thai university uniforms ‘sexiest in the world’). So yea im jw if this is some sort of cultural thing, like are girls here just really shy and dont know how to flirt cause I cant really tell which girl is interested or just wants a friend. im gonna be here awhile so Im trying to gather some info on this Learn More Alam N, Roy SK, Ahmed T, Ahmed AM. Nutritional status, dietary intake, and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh. J Health Popul Nutr 2010;28:86-94.

  20. football predictions, free predictions previews for main and minor football leagues updates every day. check out all of our winning 1×2 betting tips for today. Our tips are updated at 8.45am every day with all our daily tips: the home of free soccer and football tips for competitions around the world. explore our expert football tips and soccer betting predictions for the beautiful game. Champions LeagueTODAY19:30 If your first bet loses, you’ll receive a refund up to $1,250 from Caesars in free bets We are committed in our support of safer gambling. Recommended bets are advised to over-18s and we strongly encourage readers to wager only what they can afford to lose. With thousands of soccer handicappers adding their best soccer picks to OLBG every day, some users like to bet on today’s most popular soccer predictions. Today’s soccer picks are listed above in order of event time.
    You can email the site owner to let them know you were blocked. Please include what you were doing when this page came up and the Cloudflare Ray ID found at the bottom of this page. To help you with your 2023 Grand National bets, we’ve put together our list of the best bookmaker offers for the big race in this handy guide. Winner of the Cork Grand National last November but this eight year old Irish chaser has lost his form completely since and pulled up in the Midlands Grand National in March. Unseated at 9th on only taste of these unique fences in the Becher Chase last November and is unlikely to make the final field. Was out for more than a year before making his seasonal return at Haydock in February where a decent performance saw him take 3rd place in the Grand National Trial. Is it enough to expect a solid run at Aintree?

  21. Hello are using WordPress for your site platform?
    I’m new to the blog world but I’m trying to get started and
    create my own. Do you require any coding knowledge to make your own blog?
    Any help would be really appreciated!

  22. Hi there very cool site!! Guy .. Excellent .. Superb ..
    I’ll bookmark your website and take the feeds additionally?
    I’m satisfied to search out a lot of helpful information right here within the put up,
    we need develop extra techniques on this regard, thank you for sharing.

    . . . . .

  23. My partner and I stumbled over here different website and thought
    I might check things out. I like what I see so i am just following you.
    Look forward to checking out your web page for a
    second time.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *